ALL IN THE MONTH OF OCTOBER 500 years ago, on 11th Oct 1521 that Pope Leo X granted the title ‘Defender of the Faith’ to King Henry VIII of England and Ireland. It recognised the King’s defence of the sacrament of marriage, the supremacy of the Pope, and his opposition to the Protestant Reformation and the ideas of Martin Luther. The title has been inherited by British monarchs since then. 250 years ago, on 17th Oct 1771 that the premiere of Mozart’s pastoral opera, Ascanio in Alba, took place in Milan, Italy. Mozart was then aged 15. 125 years ago, on 3rd Oct 1896 that William Morris, British textile designer, pot novelist and socialist, died. Best known for his association with the Arts and Crafts Movement. 90 years ago, on 24th Oct 1931 that the George Washington Bridge was opened. It spans the Hudson River and links Manhattan to Fort Lee, New Jersey. 80 years ago, from 2nd Oct 1941 to 7th Jan 1942 that the Battle of Moscow took place. 19 Nazi Germany launched a massive offensive against the Soviet capital. It was one of the largest and most important battles of World War II. Soviet victory. 70 years ago, from 15th to 17th Oct 1951 that the first party election broadcasts were televised in the UK. The three main parties, Liberal, Conservative and Labour, were allocated 15 minutes each. Also 70 years ago, on 18th Oct 1951that Snowdonia National Park was established in Wales, and on 30th Oct 1951 that Dartmoor National Park was established. On the 31st Oct 1951, the zebra crossings were introduced in the UK. The first one was in Slough, Berks. 65 years ago, from 29th Oct to 7th Nov 1956 that the Suez Crisis took place. Israel invaded Egypt in an attempt to regain Western control of the Suez Canal and remove President Gamal Abdel Nasser from power. Britain and France joined the invasion but were forced to withdraw by the United Nations, the USA and the

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